Three companies Albemarle, (US), FMC (US) and SQM control 89% of the World’s market for Lithium Carbonate (LiCo³).
Lithium Carbonate (LICO³) In its pure form Lithium Carbonate is used in the medicine for bi-polar and other manic depressant conditions. It is sold to battery manufacturers who manufacture Lithium Ion batteries.
Lithium Battery Compounds in Lithium Ion batteries
- Lithium Manganese Dioxide (LiMnO²) most common in cellphones and other small rechargeable batteries’ It was also being used in the Chevrolet Leaf automobile. Most hybrids still use Nickel Hydrite batteries (NiMH) but have been moving to LiMnO² to take advantage of higher watts hours per kilogram.
- Tesla converts Lithium Carbonate into LiNiCOAlO² which goes by the name of Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Dioxide for their battery pack. (63 KG of Lithium in a TeslaBattery pack)
- Lithium Sulphur Chloride (LiSO²CL²) It accepts a larger charge per mass than LiMno² but is corrosive and more volatile.
- Lithium Iron Disulfide (LiFeS²) Whereas LiMno² batteries lack around 280 watts hours per kilogram; LiFeS² measure between 500 and 700 watt hours per kilogram. However, they are high cost and have safety issues. Better in extreme cold & heat then LiMnO²
Other Lithium Compounds and their applications
- Lithium Hydride (LiH) shields nuclear reactors and used in making nuclear fusion fuel
- Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) Used in CO² scrubbers in submarines and spacecraft. Also in certain ceramics.
- Lithium tantalite (LiOTaO³) Used in optics, infrared sensors, motion detectors and acoustic wave generation